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Locations of the piercing points of the ray paths of P-to-S converted phases at the 660-km discontinuity (crosses) and the P660s ray paths (color lines) from the central patch (grey squares) to the ICEMELT seismic station and the GSN station BORG (dots) on Iceland. The Icelandic coast and the Reykjanes and Kolbeinsey ridges are represented by regional bathymetry at 1-km contours.

Map view of differences between the observed P660s and P410s differential times and the value predicted for the iasp91 average earth model. Red and yellow colors indicate significantly smaller differential times (thinner mantle transition zone) than in iasp91, while blue colors denote normal or somewhat greater differential times.



Phase and amplitude sensitivity kernels of a Rayleigh wave in the presence of a Gaussian shaped topography.


Phase and amplitude sensitivity kernels of a Pn wave.


P-wave velocity variations beneath the Eastern Himalayan syntaxis (Ren and Shen, 2008)